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This sweep enabled her to surpass Michael Jackson as the top winner in the show’s history. During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to concern of what the Soviet Union government may do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; received the prize twice.

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He alleged that Jelinek’s works were “a mass of textual content shovelled collectively with out artistic construction”. The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.

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  • During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which till then was causing hundreds of deaths annually.
  • The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring.
  • Nobel’s directions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom had been appointed shortly after the desire was permitted in April 1897.

Malala Yousafzai; on the age of 17, acquired Nobel Peace Prize. Gaston Ramon received a total of a hundred and fifty five nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the final yr with public nomination information for that award as of 2016[replace]. Pierre Paul Émile Roux obtained 115 nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld obtained 84 in physics.

These are the three most nominated scientists with out awards in the data printed as of 2016[replace]. Otto Stern received seventy nine nominations in physics 1925–forty three earlier than being awarded in 1943. Adam Kirsch has instructed that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or additional-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.

The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate extra to European authors. Literature PrizeThe award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the number of Jelinek had caused “irreparable injury to all progressive forces, it has also confused the final view of literature as an art”.